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Bamboo is the most important species and introduced in large scale especially sociel forestry in India.It is a best substitute for hardwoods and adsorbs carbondoixide gases and release 35% more oxygen to the atmosphere that is equivalent to hardwood trees.In socal forestry programmes bamboo is grown in the following systems.
Bamboo is important step towords the development of sustainable utilization and renewable resource.There are about 1500 bamboo spiecies in the world.It is the world faster producer for biomass and can be used for anything between production of paper or clothing used for construction. In China, bamboo leaf extract has a long history of food and medical applicationsand have a potential to get remarkable relevance among spectator in global market. Bamboo shoots is an important food source in many Asian countries with Thailand,China and Japan is the biggest consumers.
- Strip plantation
- Rehabilition of degraded forest
- Reclamation of waste lands
- Agroforestry plantation
- Community forestry programmes
The plantation along canal,roads,agricultural fields ,protection of community etc.And also offer physical protection of the land resources ,in that they not only conserve topography ,soil,water,air and fertility,aso provide shade and clean surrounding.It also meets the immediate requirments like agricultural population small timber,fuel and fodder.
The report show that total forest area of country is 75 million hectors.The recent satellite imagery shows the dense forest occupies an area of 37.8 million hectors.The remaining area got degraded forset where the density of trees are less than 40% of dense forest.Bamboo has planted on large scale in several states in order to rehabitate dense forest by degraded forest program with an aim to improve soil fertility and thereby productivity.
This means re-claiming it or use this land for prductive purpose .Wasteland reclamation is the process of turning barren ,sterile waste land to fertile land which is suitable for cultivation and habitation. The land which is suffer various problems like soil erosion,acidity,gully,ravine,landslide,water logging,acidity etc.Government of India implement programme for reclamation of land to improve soil condition ,selection of proper tree species for afforestation and re-vegetation of land is the key way of success in these programmes. Bamboo is appropriate which can be planted on these lands.This species being tolerant of water logging,salinity,alkalinity,soil erosion etc.
Bamboo is a household species and is best friend of farmers. It is a system by which agricultural crops can be grown in association with tree crops.Any agro forestry take in concern we can see that there is a competition for light, space water and nutrients between the tree crop And agricultural crop.So the tree crop is selected should be compatible to the agricultural crop.
This programme is based on growing bamboo on public community land contrary to private farms.The department of forest take most of the programmes and take responsibility about planting.The involvment of local community is passive and normally restrictred to the provision of hired labour for planting and an agreement to protect plantation.
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INNOVATIVE PRODUCT FROM BAMBOO
Building with bamboo looks back on ancient traditioon in the regions there the growth of plants are enormous such as South America ,Africa band particlarly in South-East-Asia. It is the oldest construction materials and is used for walls ,roofs ,foundation , reinforcements and decorations. It acts as good earthquake resistance material. The world is facing scarcity about timber consumption in future.Due to urbanisation the people need more timbers. They decided to choose a product which is best substitution wide range of purpose. A product which doesn’t have negative or no impact to environment.The greate advantage of bamboo is that we can utilize all the parts of the plant for a variety of purposes ranging from construction to deodrants and medicines. Bamboos are fast growing plants in the world,due to rhizome-dependent system. Certain species can grow 910 mm within a 24-hour period,at a rate of almost 40 mm an hour(a growth around 1mm every 90 seconds,or 1 inch every 40 minutes ). Bamboo is a pioneering plant it can grown in full sun and tolerates high winds.This is capable of land reclamation damaged by overgrazing or poor farming.
Bamboo is the definite solution for nature,cultivation and maintenance of bamboo is easy in comparison with wood.It grows faster and dense foilage ,will deposite a thick layer of leaf litter covering the ground,and will then start restoring degraded soils and re-establishing a cooler micro-climate.Bamboo roots are fibrous and spread widely.This means that it has the ablity to hold soil and excellent solution for soil erosion. Bamboo has the capacity for very high nitrogen uptake.This makes mitigation of waste water pollution and disposal of effluents. Waste water from manufacturing ,livestock farming and seweage treatment plants can be used to irrigate bamboo crops,thus covering the waste water into useful biomass.
PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO
The distrbution of fibers increases from inside to outside.The E-modulus of cellulose is 70,000 N/mm² and about 50% of the cross-section of the fiber is cellulose and it’s E-modulus is 35,000 N/mm² .The density of the fiber in the cross-section of a bamboo shell various along its thickness.This presents a functionally gradient material ,evolved according to the “stress distribution” in it natural environment.
USE OF BAMBOO IN CONSTRUCTION
It can be used for roofing.The bamboo roofs can be easily displaced and light weight
Bamboo truss is a frame made of bamboo poles.Poles connected to each other in a particular form typically in the shape of roof The lightness of bamboo ,vast availability and utilized for building shelter from modular units lends it for post-disaster shelter.the property of light weight with stength and stiffness.
Bamboo bridges are more stronger than cement bridge.But durability of this bridge is less compared to cement bridge.Bamboo is used for construction of bridges like:
Bamboo scaffolding is a type of scaffolding made from bamboo and is used extensively across the world ,particularly in Hong Kong. It is renowed for its strength ,flexibility and innovative prospect ,and has poved as best alternative for steel.Countries having tropical climate harvest bamboo for this requirment .Moreover, it avoid unnecessary landfill. It can be used for the construction of safe scaffoldings for very tall building because of the relatonship between load bearing capacity and weight. Bamboo scaffolding is more safer than steel scaffolding. Due to it causing less damage than lighter materials. It has proved that it is safer for the region having more prone to earthquake.
Bamboo is basically an above ground material. Unless it is treated with preservatives, it will last only 2-3 years underground.